Last Updated on June 29, 2020, by eNotes Editorial. Even Mahmouds precarious raft is a promise of tomorrow. From the outset, Gratz places readers in the middle of the action and immediately demonstrates the cruelty of the Nazis against the Jews. Frau Rosenberg takes Mahmoud aside and tells him the story of her childhood: she is Ruth, Josefs sister. Refugee is a novel by Alan Gratz that examines three interrelated stories of the refugee experience. This is a fascinating tale. After . On the sea, Mahmoud is marooned in the freezing Mediterranean, which ultimately capsizes his ramshackle raft. to start your free trial of SparkNotes Plus. Lito, Isabels grandfather, allows himself to be deported so that the Fernandezes can make it to Florida. Creating notes and highlights requires a free LitCharts account. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Please wait while we process your payment. eNotes.com Not only does Isabel rescue her father from arrest, she also sells her beloved trumpet to enable the family to buy gasoline to power the boat her neighbors, the Castillos, have been secretly building. Josef again shows his passage into adulthood, as he notices and worries about his mothers mental condition. creating and saving your own notes as you read. What are the different settings of the novel and how does it affect and shape the characters? Like everyone else during the Holocaust, he was scarred, both emotionally and physically. Though the three stories are historically discrete at first glance, they are linked by the fates of Ruth, Lito, and the Bisharas. Refugee is a young adult literature novel by Alan Gratz published by Scholastic Corporation in 2017. Things dont go as planned when a fight breaks out and the family has to leave their car and belongings behind. Would not have made it through AP Literature without the printable PDFs. They board the St. Louis, a large German ship, and set out. Despite his father's absence, Josef is pleased to see 100 men gathered to perform the ritual with him. And why do children lead the novels action? Mahmoud decides that he no longer wants to be ignored and leads the refugees out of the prison, walking twelve hours to Austria. After the war ended, Ruth returned to Germany to look for Josef and Rachel, but learned that the two were killed in concentration camps. Josef wonders what this means for (read more from the Pages 74 - 109 Summary). The interplay between water and vessel, then, marks the unpredictable nature of a refugees journey. Last Updated on June 29, 2020, by eNotes Editorial. Scholastic|July 25,2017|Ages 8and Up. When Officer Padron returns to the St. Louis, he is treated like a hero by the Jewish passengers. In Isabels journey, Ivn is claimed by sharks, which symbolize the life-taking maw of the ocean. Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more! Josefs fathers mental state deteriorates further, and he eventually jumps from the ship, trying to kill himself. Wed love to have you back! Josefs father gets sent to a concentration camp. -Graham S. Would not have made it through AP Literature without the printable PDFs. Refine any search. How does each of the characters experience the feeling of fear inRefugeeby Alan Gratz? After a riot in Havana, Isabels family decides that they should also leave Cuba immediately. "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." Josef: On the Atlantic Ocean 1939, 6 days, Josef: On the Atlantic Ocean 1939, 8 days, Isabel: Straits of Florida 1994, 1 day (1), Josef: On the Atlantic Ocean 1939, 10 days, Isabel: Straits of Florida 1994, 1 day (2), Josef: On the Atlantic Ocean 1939, 11 days, Isabel: The Straits of Florida 1994, 1 day (3), Mahmoud: Izmir, Turkey 2015, 11 days (1), Josef: On the Atlantic Ocean 1939, 14 days, Isabel: The Straits of Florida 1994, 1 day (4), Mahmoud: Izmir, Turkey 2015, 11 days (2), Josef: On the Atlantic Ocean 1939, 17 days, Isabel: Straits of Florida 1994, 2 days, Mahmoud: The Mediterranean 2015, 11 days (1), Mahmoud: The Mediterranean 2015, 11 days (2), Isabel: Between Bahamas and Florida 1994, 4 days, Mahmoud: Lesbos to Athens 2015, 12 days (3), Isabel: Between Bahamas and Florida 1994, 5 days (2), Mahmoud: Macedonia to Serbia 2015, 14-15 days, Isabel: Coast of Florida 1994, 5 days (1), Mahmoud: Serbia to Hungary 2015, 15-16 days, Isabel: Coast of Florida 1994, 5 days (2), Isabel: Coast of Florida 1994, 5 days (3), Josef: Vornay, France 1940, 1 year, 1 month, 10 days, Isabel: Coast of Florida 1994, 5 days (4), Mahmoud: Hungary to Germany 2015, 17 days. Josefs story starts with Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass in 1938. This is a must read for anyone, especially people who like history. Out of these passengers, it was mostly those who found asylum in England who survived World War II. on 50-99 accounts. on 2-49 accounts, Save 30% The Bisharas set sail on the crowded raft, standing in the freezing rain and cold. Empathy and Social Responsibility. Youve successfully purchased a group discount. Mahmoud and his family travel through Serbia and into Hungary, where they are detained at a refugee camp that is built like a prison. eNotes.com, Inc. eNotes Editorial. Usually, Im not interested in history, but I couldnt put this book down. School Library Journal Audiobooks - STARRED REVIEW. Seor Castillo, who is passive for much of the action, pulls Isabel into the water at the end of the novel to ensure that she reaches the American coast. If Cuba does not let the refugees in, it signifies a return to a society that is more than willing to be unjust and cruel toward them. A stunning, poignant novel about the plight of refugees Grade A. Mahmoud; Waleed; their parents, Youssef and Fatima; and their baby sister, Hana, leave for Germany. But for each of them, thereis always the hope of tomorrow. Isabels family and friends have always wanted to leave the country, but Castro will throw you in jail if you try to escape. It tells the story of three refugee children and their families in different times and places. A storm sweeps them to the Bahamas, where they are not allowed to disembark; Ivn is attacked by sharks and eventually bleeds to death in the boat; and toward the end of the journey, Isabels pregnant mother goes into labor. Interestingly, the stories are also tied together through the symbolism of water and boats. It only gets worse for them, but in the end, he learns a powerful life lesson: Its better to be visible than invisible, because even though the bad people can harm you, the good people can help you. Josef and his family flee Nazi Germany in 1938; Isabel and her family flee Cuba in 1994; and Mahmoud and his family flee Syria in 2015. A passing, overcrowded boat cannot accommodate all of them, but at Mahmouds insistence, a woman onboard agrees to take Hana. His father, Aaron, is taken away by the Nazis on Kristallnacht and is sent to the Dachau concentration camp. Already a member? This immediately places Josef in the role of an adult, forcing him to grow up quickly. (including. Alan Gratzs novel Refugee (2017) illuminates the worldwide refugee crisis through the stories of three children fleeing possible death with their families in different times and places. Josef: Train to Hamburg - 1939, 1 day Themes and Colors Key Summary Analysis After school, Mahmoud, Waleed, and their mother, Fatima, do their usual afternoon prayer. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. The boat the Castillos have cobbled together becomes the center of Isabels existence. What is the resolution for Josef, Isabel, and Mahmoud inRefugee? Refugee is more than a story about children fleeing their homelands, it is a story about what unites us all love, family and perseverance. The night that they were captured in France, Josef volunteered to be taken by the Nazis; both Josef and their mother were killed in concentration camps. The second is the date of Things dont go as planned when a fight breaks out and the family has to leave their car and belongings behind. After it capsizes, it is another boat that gives Hana a chance at life, and it is a Greek Coast Guard boat that ultimately rescues Mahmouds family. online is the same, and will be the first date in the citation. Josef's father is convinced there is a trap, so Josef and his mother go without him. Lito atones for the past by treading water and returning to Cuba. Meeting Aaron at Hamburg, Josef is shocked to see his once-confident father visibly anxious and harrowed. Our summaries and analyses are written by experts, and your questions are answered by real teachers. All are escaping persecution and seeking safety and freedom. After its passengers were denied asylum in Cuba, the ship tragically returned to Europe, hoping to find sanctuary for its passengers between four European countries: Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and England. While they travel, they ask if anyone has seen Hana. For Aaron, it represents a metaphorical death, as he disappears into the water and subsequently out of Josefs life. Eventually, the captain announces that they are not going to be allowed to dock in Havana and that the boat will be leaving. The rumor proves all too true, however, when the ship is marooned at the Cuban harbor for days, with officials telling the passengers day after day they will be allowed to disembark maanaSpanish for tomorrow. Aaron, who suffers a mental breakdown and jumps ship, is rescued by a Cuban police officer called Mariano Padron and allowed into Cuba, but Josef, Rachel, and Ruthand the rest of the passengers of the St. Louisare turned back. At another level, however, water represents change, which many of the main characters have to undergo either to survive or to redeem themselves. The third story belongs to thirteen-year-old Mahmoud Bishara, who lives in war-torn Aleppo, Syria, against the backdrop of a crisis which continues into the present day. Josefs hope starts to waver following the discovery that the ship may not actually allow them to find a new life in Cuba. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. It gives the reader an unflinching look at the humanity, courage, and struggle of refugees seeking safety and freedom. "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." His 2017 novel Refugee has spent more than two years on the New York Times bestseller list, and is the winner of 14 state awards. Students will see themselves in the young protagonists: children faced with insurmountable and tragic circumstances but who, at their heart, are just kids who love their families and want to live in peace. Teachers may opt to lower the security if they want to allow sharing. Instant downloads of all 1699 LitChart PDFs Alan Gratz is the bestselling author of a number of novels for young readers. Get news and updates about the stuff Alan writes! In the end, these three stories are connected. For one, fiction enables the reader to inhabit history in a way that textbooks and newsprint cannot accommodate. The stories are set in different times and places and are told from the perspective of the refugee children. Fatima holds little Hana over her head, while Mahmoud keeps Fatima afloat. March 4, 2023, SNPLUSROCKS20 His mother, father, little brother Waleed, and baby sister Hana barely manage to escape the bombing of their apartment building. They're like having in-class notes for every discussion!, This is absolutely THE best teacher resource I have ever purchased. Complete your free account to access notes and highlights. My students love how organized the handouts are and enjoy tracking the themes as a class., Requesting a new guide requires a free LitCharts account. However, one day Castro announces that he wont enforce staying in the country anymore, and Isabels family is ready to leave in a small boat their friends made. The family struggles between needing to stay "invisible" in order to avoid danger and survive and becoming "visible" so that those with means can give them aid. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. Chapter 22 Summary: "Josef: Somewhere on the Atlantic Ocean1939" . And although Josef, Isabel, and Mahmoud are separated by continents and decades, surprisingconnections will tie their stories together in the end. The novel begins with the story line of twelve-year-old Josef, a Jewish boy in Germany. Detailed quotes explanations with page numbers for every important quote on the site. They walk to the ship and their father races inside, convinced the authorities will try to stop them. In the book "Games at Twilight", what details do you notice that show this story is not taking place in the United States? Josef Landau, from the book Refugee, is a 13 year old boy born into the life of World War 2. Josefs father is taken to Havana to recover. The trip is initially joyous and hopeful. (He is Officer Padron from Josefs story.) Josef, Isabel, and Mahmouds strands begin to converge. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. What are some of the themes, symbols and motifs present in the novel? Complete your free account to access notes and highlights, Refugee: Each version of Storyboard That has a different privacy and security model that is tailored for the expected usage. Instant downloads of all 1699 LitChart PDFs The second date is today's Refugee: Josef: Havana Harbor - 1939, 19 days (2) Summary & Analysis Next. Thus, it would be a mistake to interpret Refugee as only a tale about extraordinary, heroic children. Isabel trades her trumpet to a fisherman for gasoline, paying her familys way onto Ivns familys boat. Purchasing With the fall of the Soviet Union, aid to Cuba has dried up, and many families starve. Review: Refugee is a powerful novel about three very different children. They take a train to board the St. Louis, where it feels like paradise compared to the treatment they received the last couple of years. Josef's father suffers greatly from post traumatic stress disorder from his months of torture, starvation, and hard labor in the concentration camp. As Gratz observes in his author's note to the novel, the MS St. Louis was a real ship carrying . The family is eventually pulled from the water by the Greek Coast Guard. He is gaunt and thin; looking "like an escapee from a mental asylum" (36). It carried 937 Jewish refugees who were seeking freedom from Nazi persecution in Germany. Josef; his mother, Rachel; and his sister, Ruth, leave for Hamburg, where they are to meet Aaron and sail to Cuba, which is said to be offering asylum to those fleeing Nazi Germany. The stories are set in different times and places and are told from the perspective of the refugee children. 2023 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. This is how Mahmoud puts it: No one cares about us if we stay out of your way, but if we come near you were seen as a burden. Isabels beloved grandfather Litoshort for Abuelitois on board as well, though he is unsure about leaving Cuba. The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of. Storyboarding is an incredibly powerful tool for educators because it helps students process and understand the information in a deep, meaningful way. Lito is rescued and deported to Cuba. In Cuba in 1994, eleven-year-old Isabel Fernandez lives a life of poverty and uncertainty in the middle of civil strife. Isabels best friend and neighbor, Ivn, is building a small boat with his father so that his family can flee to America. No one else can view anything. PDFs of modern translations of every Shakespeare play and poem. Refugee by Alan Gratz is a historical fiction novel written in 2017 that weaves together three compelling stories of families seeking sanctuary in other countries. How does the. They run into several problems, like being in bloody water with many sharks around on a sinking boat and there are high stakes at the end. Find related themes, quotes, symbols, characters, and more. What I really like about this book is the changing perspectives. Each story weaves actual events into the narrative to create a realistic picture of the struggle and tragedies that families in each of these situations have faced. The way the content is organized, LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in, Injustice and Cruelty vs. Im a big fan of that, and it was executed brilliantly here. Lito tells the story of the St. Louis and how he had to turn away so many refugees when he was a young policeman. The rest of the passengers grow angry. His mother gives the sailor their tickets and they board the boat. All three young people will go on harrowing journeys in search of refuge. What is the setting of "Games at Twilight"? Refine any search. A haunting fictional treatment of historic events. This is an engaging tale. Josef and his family flee Nazi Germany in 1938; Isabel and her family flee Cuba in 1994; and Mahmoud and his family flee Syria in 2015. Amidst the celebration of leaving, Josef is concerned about his father. As Gratz observes in his authors note to the novel, the MS St. Louis was a real ship carrying 937 passengers, almost all of them Jews fleeing Nazi atrocities, that set sail for Cuba from Hamburg in 1939. In 1938, his home is raided by Nazi storm troopers, and his father is taken to the Dachau concentration camp. Refugee is a historical fiction novel written in 2017 that weaves together three compelling stories of families seeking sanctuary in other countries. Her father is caught participating in the "Maleconazo" riot, during which citizens protested the government's civil rights abuses as well as the economic crisis that had plunged the nation into poverty. date the date you are citing the material. But Captain Schroeder recognizes the necessity of keeping those hopes alive, and so continues to conceal that there may be trouble when they reach Cuba. As the starving populace rioted against dictator Fidel Castros police, Castro allowed Cubans to flee to the United States, thus ending the riots in effect. Because of this, they all want to escape to a safer place. Josefs father is convinced there is a trap, so Josef and his mother go without him. Isabels story starts with a riot. This is a must read for anyone, especially people who like history. You'll be billed after your free trial ends. Josef Landau's story begins in 1938 in Nazi Germany. The way the content is organized, Mahmoud: The Mediterranean 2015, 11 days (3), Isabel: Between Bahamas and Florida 1994, 5 days (1), LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in, Injustice and Cruelty vs. Mahmoud and his traumatized younger brother, Waleed, have learned to survive the frequent bombings and the bullying by majority Sunnis by learning to be invisible. However, the family is forced to act when their neighborhood is bombed. All three stories make for a great novel and it will teach you a lot and appreciate how good we have it. Teachers and parents! Empathy and Social Responsibility. Dont have an account? All three stories make for a great novel and it will teach you a lot and appreciate how good we have it. Out of the 937 aboard, roughly 254 ultimately perished in Nazi concentration camps. All storyboards are public and can be viewed and copied by anyone. The places where they live are in a horrifying state of turmoil. SparkNotes PLUS Source (s) Refugee All will face unimaginable dangersfrom drownings to bombings to betrayals. Padron tells Josef and his mother that Landau has been sedated and is recovering in a Cuban hospital. Refugee Characters. LitCharts Teacher Editions. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. He also draws a clear line between this view of the children, and their justification of the violence that they deem acceptable against Jewish people. Summary Themes Questions & Answers Characters Analysis Refugee Themes T he main themes in Refugee are trauma and growing up, the dehumanization of refugees, and empathy and hope. They have come to arrest Josef's father: "Other Jewish homes and businesses and synagogues were destroyed all over Germany, and tens of . Storyboard That is the perfect tool for novel lesson plans and activities because it's so easy to use and extremely versatile. Isabels boat, too, tips over, the sea claiming her familys food and water. Trauma and. In exchange for Rachels diamonds, the soldiers offer her an impossible bargain: she can save just one of her children from being arrested. Isabel's story is set in Cuba in 1994 during a time of great economic crisis and upheaval. Josef demonstrates his personal desire to grow up, but over the course of the novel he comes to recognize the value of being able to be a child. For the last few years, there has been a war in his country between the Syrian government, rebels, the Soviets, the United States and several other factions. The last date is today's Meant to be read, discussed, and shared widely. In what ways were they taken advantage of or harmed by the cruelty and apathy of others? Creating notes and highlights requires a free LitCharts account. When the family is eventually caught, Josefs mother is forced to choose which of her children will be freed and which will be sent to a concentration camp. Margaret Neville, The King's English Bookstore, 2018 Sydney Taylor Book Award Winner for Older Readers, 2018 National Jewish Book Award Winner for Young Adults, New York Times Notable Middle Grade Childrens Book 2017, 2017 Cybils Middle Grade Fiction Award Winner, 2018 Indies Choice/E.B. Refugee is a powerful novel about three very different children. It is shabbos and time for Josefs Bar Mitzvah, the Jewish religious ceremony when a Jewish boy turns 13 years old. All storyboards and images are private and secure. When the St. Louis reaches Havana Harbor in Cuba, the ship is not allowed to dock. They take a train to board the St. Louis, where it feels like paradise compared to the treatment they received the last couple of years. With his homeland torn apart by violence and destruction, he and his family begin a long trek toward Europe. In Josefs story, the very calm of the Atlantic Ocean is menacing, hiding a darker future. Josef, his sister Ruth, and his mother all travel to Hamburg to board a ship that will take them to Cuba. The citation above will include either 2 or 3 dates. The St. Louis could not save Josef, just as the Castillos boat could not save Ivn. He promises the passengers that he will try to deliver them to a country other than Germany. Once he is released, the family flees to Cuba. The St. Louis was an actual ship that sailed from Hamburg to Cuba in May, 1939 under the command of Captain Gustav Schrder. Josef is a Jewish boy in 1930s Nazi Germany. Fast paced, insightful, filled with drama and tension. With riots and unrest plaguing her country, she and her family set out on a raft, hoping to find safety and freedom in America His only distinguishing characteristics are big ears and wire-rimmed glasses. Ruth promises to help Mahmoud find Hana. His experiences with oppression in Germany, and then as a refugee, cause him to grow up far sooner than he should have to. Also, there are parallels between the three stories, and at the end, all of the three stories are connected. Refugee Chapters 22-32 Summary & Analysis. You'll also get updates on new titles we publish and the ability to save highlights and notes. Fidel Castro has taken over the country of Cuba and the citizens are sick of his dictatorship. Josef's story is set in Nazi Germany in 1939. Refugee looks readers straight in the eye, challenging them to truly see these kids who are battling the worst moments of our recent history. Josef and his sister Ruthie are just children, and yet they are needlessly abused by the soldiers. Summary Themes Questions & Answers Characters Analysis Refugee Summary R efugee is a novel by Alan Gratz that examines three interrelated stories of the refugee experience. Josef's story starts with Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass in 1938. Students will see themselves in the young protagonists: children faced with tragic circumstances but who, at their heart, are just kids who love their families and want to live in peace. They skipped the chapters on the other two characters, and the students that read Josef's story had to read the last chapter of Mahmoud's . Complete your free account to request a guide. Josef, his family, and the passengers are now faced with the possibility of being returned to Germany and to their certain death. It only gets worse for them, but in the end, he learns a powerful life lesson: Its better to be visible than invisible, because even though the bad people can harm you, the good people can help you. My students love how organized the handouts are and enjoy tracking the themes as a class., Requesting a new guide requires a free LitCharts account. Teacher Editions with classroom activities for all 1699 titles we cover. Though Refugee is a novel, all three of its main storylines are based on actual historical events. Mahmoud Bishara is a twelve-year-old boy who lives in Aleppo, Syria in 2015. Josef is a Jewish boy in 1930s Nazi Germany. Detailed quotes explanations with page numbers for every important quote on the site. In the end, these three stories are connected. Mahmouds story starts with their apartment building collapsing, due to people rioting because of the civil war going on in Syria. Complete your free account to request a guide. "Refugee - Summary" eNotes Publishing Josef Landauis fleeing Nazi Germany in 1939. Isabels story starts with a riot. Isabel wakes up, still in the boat, now 3 days from home. Definitions and examples of 136 literary terms and devices. Gratz accomplishes a feat that is nothing short of brilliantPoignant, respectful, and historically accurate while pulsating with emotional turmoil, adventure, and suspense. Isabel's story is like that of thousands of other Cuban immigrants who all fled Castro's Cuba. PDFs of modern translations of every Shakespeare play and poem. Though Refugee is a novel, all three of its main storylines are based on actual historical events. Faced with her father being sent to prison, Isabel and her family (her pregnant Mami, Papi, and grandfather Lito) decide to band together with Isabel's best friend Ivan and his family, the Castillos. If there are two dates, the date of publication and appearance $24.99 The journey aboard the St. Louis from Hamburg to Havana is a sunny interlude in Josef and Ruths troubled childhood. Because of this, they all want to escape to a safer place. The family face incredible hardship and tragedy throughout their long journey through Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, and Hungary on their way to Germany. Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts. Contact us Log in here. The Landaus disembark in France, which gives them some months of respite. In 1938 Berlin, a 12-year-old Jewish boy named Josef is awakened by the sound of Hitler's Brownshirts breaking into his family's apartment. PDF downloads of all 1699 LitCharts literature guides, and of every new one we publish. Like Josef, Isabel too has to grow up overnight in the face of uncertainty and assume the mantle of the adult of the family. Finally, storyboards are a great way to assess student understanding because they provide a visual representation of student learning. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. The author can choose to leave the storyboard public or mark it as Unlisted. Sometimes it can end up there. On the ship, Ruth, born in Nazi Germany, has the freedom to play openly for the first time in her life. The second date is today's SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. date the date you are citing the material.